Fig. 2 | Nature Communications

Fig. 2

From: Gene-diet interactions associated with complex trait variation in an advanced intercross outbred mouse line

Fig. 2

Impact of diet on development of lupus nephritis in NZM2410/J mice. a Representative image of NZM2410/J mouse exposed to Western diet (left) vs. a mouse fed with calorie-restricted diet (right) after 28 weeks of dietary intervention. b X-Y plot demonstrating the impact of diet and sex on body weight for caloric restriction (nfemales = 8, nmales = 10), for control diet (nfemales = 7, nmales = 10) and for western diet (nfemales = 9, nmales = 11). Error bars indicate means ± SEM. Data was analyzed using two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison test, *p < 0.05, ***p < 0.001, n.s., not significant. All were evaluated in comparison to mice on control diet. ###p < 0.001 compared with mice on Western diet. c Step plot showing the onset of proteinuria in NZM2410/J mice for caloric restriction (n = 18), control (n = 17) and western (n = 20) diets. Mice fed Western diet developed proteinuria four weeks earlier (20.0 ± 3.0 weeks) in comparison to mice fed control diet (24.0 ± 2.7 weeks). Notably, none of the mice on caloric restriction demonstrated signs of proteinuria throughout the entire observation period. Data are shown as the mean ± SEM and were analyzed using two-way ANOVA. d Representative histological images of glomerular changes in NZM2410/J mice show that mice on caloric restriction demonstrated almost no signs of glomerular damage. In contrast, mice on the Western diet had severe histological changes, such as crescent formation (arrow) and PAS-positive deposits in glomeruli (asterisk), which were milder in the control group. Scale bar, 100 μm. Bar plots demonstrating crescent formation (e) and sclerotic changes (f) in NZM2410/J mice show significantly more severe kidney injury in Western diet mice compared to mice on caloric restriction (caloric restriction, n = 18; control diet, n = 15; Western diet, n = 19). Error bars indicate means ± SEM. Data was tested for statistical significance using the Kruskal–Wallis test, with Dunn’s post hoc test, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01. g Quantification of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in sera of NZM2410/J mice set on different diets as determined by indirect immunofluorescence analysis on HEp-20–10 cells (left panel; caloric restriction, n = 18; control diet, n = 16; western diet n = 19). Data was analyzed using the X2 test with Fisher exact test as a post hoc test. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, n.s., not significant. Representative images of ANA negative and positive sera samples (right panel). Scale bar, 100 μm. Source data for (b, c, eg) are provided in the Source Data file

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