Fig. 4 | Nature Communications

Fig. 4

From: The cost of obtaining rewards enhances the reward prediction error signal of midbrain dopamine neurons

Fig. 4

Dopamine neuron responses to reward cues. a An example neuron response to the R+ cues. The spike density functions were calculated from the activity of dopamine neuron recorded from monkey P. The colored lines and dots indicate spike density and spike timing, respectively. Yellow and pink colors indicate activity in the high-cost and low-cost trials, respectively. The vertical line indicates the timing of the R+ cue presentation. The gray-colored area indicates the period to calculate the firing rate as the response to the reward cues. b Population-averaged activity of the dopamine neurons recorded from monkey P to the R+ cues. The solid lines and the dashed lines represent mean and SEM, respectively. c The distribution of the auROCs to quantify the effect of the paid cost on the neuronal response to the R+ cues. Filled squares and open circles indicate data from monkey P and S, respectively. The arrowhead indicates the median of the auROCs (0.53). d A representative response to the R− cues. Green and cyan colors indicate high-cost and low-cost trials, respectively. The vertical line indicates the timing of the R− cue presentation. e Population-averaged activity of the dopamine neurons recorded from monkey P to the R− cues. f The distribution of the auROCs to quantify the effect of the paid cost on the neuronal response to the R− cues. The arrowhead indicates the median of the auROC (0.50)

Back to article page