Table 2 Element ratios in the CZTSSe absorber layers for flexible CZTSSe3 and CZTSSe7 solar cells determined using an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) emission spectrometer

From: Flexible Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells with over 10% efficiency and methods of enlarging the cell area

Sample ICP data (mg kg−1) Atomic ratios
Cu Zn Sn S Se Cu/(Zn + Sn) Zn/Sn (S + Se)/(Cu + Zn;+ Sn) S/(S + Se)
CZTSSe3 Precursor 1432 1300 1625 0.672 1.453
Absorber 1172 1083 1371 978 34679 0.656 1.434 10.088 0.065
absorber–precursor −260 −217 −253 −0.015 −0.019
(absorber–precursor) % −18.17% −16.70% −15.59% −2.29% −1.32%
CZTSSe7 Precursor 1421 1356 1723 0.635 1.429
Absorber 1329 1271 1622 982 36971 0.632 1.423 9.234 0.061
absorber–precursor −92 −85 −101 −0.003 −0.006
(absorber–precursor) % −6.50% −6.28% −5.86% −0.42% −0.45%