Table 1 Summary of reported kesterite solar cells on flexible substrates and the highest efficiency CZTS-based solar cells on SLG substrates with small and large areas

From: Flexible Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells with over 10% efficiency and methods of enlarging the cell area

Substrate Absorber Precursor deposition Solar cell structure η (%) VOC (V) JSC (mA cm−2) FF(%) Cell area (cm2) Ref.
SLG CZTSSe Sputtering SLG/Mo/CZTSSe/CdS/ZnO/ZnO:Al/MgF2 12.6 0.541 35.39 65.90 0.480 6
SLG CZTSSe Sputtering SLG/Mo/CZTSSe/CdS/ZnO/ZnO:Al/MgF2 11.3 0.533 33.57 63.0 1.176 6
Mo foil CZTSSe Sputtering Mo foil/CZTSSe/CdS/ZnO/ZnO:Al 7.04 0.498 30.06 47.02 0.530 9
Corning Willow glass CZTSSe CZTS nanoparticles ink Willow Glas/Mo/CZTSSe/CdS/ZnO/ITO/Al-Ni grid 6.90 0.370 31.70 58.40 29
SS430 CZTS Sputtering SS430/Mo/CZTS/CdS/ZnO/ITO 6.29 0.628 17.40 57.51 0.24 10
SS430 CZTSe Sputtering SS430/Cr/Mo/i-ZnO/Mo:Na/Mo/CZTSe/CdS/ZnO/ZnO:Al 6.10 0.360 27.90 56.80 36
PI foil CZTSe Sputtering PI/Mo/CZTSe/CdS/ZnO/ITO 4.90 0.337 27.20 53.20 37
SS430 CZTS Sputtering SS430/Mo/CZTS/CdS/ZnO/ITO 4.10 0.638 13.38 48.01 0.3–0.4 28
Mo foil CZTS Electro-deposition Mo foil/Mo/CZTS/CdS/ZnO/ZnO:Al 3.82 0.473 18.80 42.90 0.35 30
SS CZTSe Sputtering SS/Cr barrier/Mo/i-ZnO/CZTSe/CdS/ZnO/ZnO:Al 3.50 0.302 24.70 47.10 0.09 38
Corning Willow Glass CZTS Sputtering Willow Glass/Mo/CZTS/CdS/ZnO/ITO 3.08 0.491 10.60 59.20 31
Mo foil CZTS Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction Mo foil/CZTS/CdS/i-ZnO/AZO/Ag 2.42 0.477 11.29 45.00 0.12 32
Mo foil CZTS Spin coating Mo foil/CZTS/CdS/ZnO/AZO/Al 2.25 0.370 13.52 45.00 0.25 33
Al foil CZTS CZTS ink Al foil/Mo/CZTS/ZnS/i-ZnO/ITO 1.94 0.484 8.90 45.10 34
Polyimide CZTS Screen printing PI/Mo/CZTS/CdS/ZnO:Al 0.49 0.386 4.76 27.00 0.15 35