Fig. 1 | Nature Communications

Fig. 1

From: More efficient North Atlantic carbon pump during the Last Glacial Maximum

Fig. 1

Concepts to distinguish DICas. For simplicity, only CO2 invasion associated with organic matter cycling is considered. In the ocean box, vertical solid and dashed lines (ad) represent mean PO4 (blue) and DIC (red) in an abiotic ocean (a). Biology redistributes DIC and PO4 following Redfield stoichiometry (curves; b). This decreases surface-ocean DIC and pCO2, and hence causes air-to-sea CO2 transfer (c). Through mixing and ocean circulation, CO2 invasion raises water-column DIC, i.e., shifting dashed curve (equals the red-solid curve in b) to red-solid curve (c). The shaded region in c represents air–sea exchange DICas signatures. After removing carbon redistribution by biology based on PO4-related curvature of the profiles (b), DICas can be revealed by the shaded region in d

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