Table 1 Baseline and 2-year after characteristics of the U-CARE study

From: Gut microbiome-derived phenyl sulfate contributes to albuminuria in diabetic kidney disease

   Baseline After 2 years
PS (μM) 3.3 (0–68.1)  
suPAR (pg/mL) 460.8 (142.0–2740.2)  
Age (years) 63.3 ± 12.4 65.3 ± 12.4
Gender (M/F) 206/156 206/156
DM type (1/2/others) 40/318/4  
Duration (years) 14.6 ± 8.8 16.6 ± 8.8
Time to measure (years)   2.08 ± 0.18
BMI (kg/m2) 25.0 ± 4.4  
SBP (mmHg) 127.8 ± 15.2 128.6 ± 15.8
DBP (mmHg) 72.4 ± 10.2 72.1 ± 10.6
BS (mg/dL) 154.2 ± 56.4 159.5 ± 60.6
HbA1c (%) 7.2 ± 1.1 7.3 ± 1.1
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 73.8 (17.1–115.4) 72.6 (13.8–112.4)
ACR (mg/gCr) 11.0 (1.0–6407.4) 13.1 (1.1–3410.8)
ALT (IU/L) 22.5 ± 12.5 23.4 ± 14.9
TC (mg/dL) 175.4 ± 31.6 179.9 ± 32.1
TG (mg/dL) 132.2 ± 82.6 133.1 ± 79.4
HDL (mg/dL) 55.3 ± 16.6 57.1 ± 16.7
UA (mg/dL) 5.3 ± 1.7 5.1 ± 1.4
  1. Baseline and 2-year after characteristics of the U-CARE study (n = 362 DKD patients). Mean ± SD was for parametric factors and the median range was for nonparametric factors (eGFR, ACR, PS, and suPAR). In the U-CARE study, eGFR (CKD-EPI) is the estimated eGFR based on the equation of Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI). PS phenyl sulfate concentration, suPAR soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, duration duration of diabetic mellitus, BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, BS blood glucose level, HbA1c NGSP value, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate (CKD-EPI), ACR urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, ALT alanine aminotransferase, TC total cholesterol, TG triglyceride, HDL high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, UA uremic acid.