Fig. 1 | Nature Communications

Fig. 1

From: Gut microbiome-derived phenyl sulfate contributes to albuminuria in diabetic kidney disease

Fig. 1

Diabetic SLCO4C1-Tg rats showed reduced proteinuria. a Body weight, blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine clearance (Ccr) in diabetic SLCO4C1-Tg rats (white circles, n = 5) and WT rats (black circles, n = 6). b Representative PAS (left) stained sections of WT and SLCO4C1-Tg rat glomeruli. Bars = 100 μm. n = 50 in each group. Data are mean ± SEM. *p < 0.05 vs. WT. Student t test. c Variation in the five groups in the PLS-DA scores plot using the chemical features detected in plasma. Sample conditions are represented by color coded circles: WT-d7 (black), WT-d63 (blue), WT-d119 (cyan), Tg-d63 (red), and Tg-d119 (orange). Groups D7, D63, and D119 are surrounded by black, red, and orange solid rings, respectively. Groups WT-d63, WT-d119, Tg-d63, and Tg-d119 are surrounded by blue, cyan, red, and orange dotted rings, respectively. d S-plot analyses of orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) of WT rats on days 7 and 119. The selected 94 features (surrounded by a dotted red rectangle) were significantly greater on day 119 than on day 7. e S-plot analyses of OPLS-DA of WT and Tg rats on day 63. f S-plot analyses of OPLS-DA of WT and Tg rats on day 119. g Changes in the concentration of the selected feature m/z 172.97 with the progression of diabetes. Wild-type rats (white column, n = 6); SLCO4C1-Tg rats (black column, n = 5). h Fragment ion mass spectrum of m/z 172.97. The main detected precursor and fragment ion was m/z 172.97. The product ions found in the corresponding extracted MSE high-energy spectrum at m/z 79.9, m/z 93.0, m/z 109.0, and m/z 121.0 were hypothesized to be [M-C6H5O-H]-, [M-SO3-H]-, [M-SO2-H]-, and [M-C4H4-H]-, respectively. i Chemical structure of PS. j SLCO4C1-mediated PS uptake by SLCO4C1/MDCKII cells (n = 3). Data are mean ± SEM. *p < 0.05 vs. control according to Student t test (a, b, g, j). Source data are provided as a Source Data file and untargeted metabolome data are provided as a Supplementary Data 1

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