Fig. 1 | Nature Communications

Fig. 1

From: Hepatic arginase 2 (Arg2) is sufficient to convey the therapeutic metabolic effects of fasting

Fig. 1

Arg2 is upregulated during fasting and trehalose treatment. a Arg2 gene expression by qPCR analysis of cultured primary hepatocytes treated with 1–100 mM trehalose (n = 6 cultures per group, derived from three mice). b Arg2 gene expression in response to 100 mM trehalose in the presence or absence of energetic reconstitution with pyruvate in primary hepatocytes (n = 6 hepatocyte cultures per group, derived from three mice). c Arg2 gene expression by qPCR analysis of cultured primary hepatocytes treated with trehalose, or the trehalase-resistant analog, lactotrehalose (n = 6 cultures per group, derived from three mice). d Hepatic Arg2 expression by qPCR (top) and immunoblot (bottom) analysis of crude liver lysates from mice subjected to trehalose feeding (3% water ad libitum, 5 days) (n = 5 mice per group). e Arg2 expression by qPCR and immunoblot analysis of crude liver lysates from mice subjected to fasting (n = 5 mice per group). f Arg2 expression by qPCR analysis of primary hepatocytes subjected to low glucose and low serum treatment (24 h). g Left panels: in vitro enzymatic-colorimetric triglyceride accumulation assay and Right: Arg2 gene expression in response to BSA-conjugated fatty acids with or without 1 nM lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and with or without adenoviral Arg2 overexpression in primary hepatocytes. Below: Inflammatory gene marker expression in parallel hepatocyte cultures analyzed above (n = 6 cultures per group, derived from three mice). h Immunoblot analysis of AKT phosphorylation in AML12 hepatocytes treated with or without 10 nM insulin following overnight serum deprivation (n = 6 cultures per group). i Arg2 gene expression in primary hepatocyte cultures following 24 h treatment with 10 mM fructose, or in crude liver lysates from db/+mice or db/db diabetic mice (n = 4 mice per group). For box plots, the midline represents the median, boxes represent the interquartile range and whiskers show the full range of values. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001, ****P < 0.0001 relative to bracketed control, by two-tailed Student’s t-test

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