Fig. 5 | Nature Communications

Fig. 5

From: Recent summer warming in northwestern Canada exceeds the Holocene thermal maximum

Fig. 5

ΔT reconstructions and climate forcings. a Northern extratropical (30–90°N) multi-proxy ΔT reconstruction11 (red; filled area = ±1σ uncertainty) and mean 1997–2016 GISTEMP37 annual ΔT for the same area (red star); b E. Beringia multi-proxy ‘all-temperature’ composite9; c E. Beringia composite pollen- (blue) and midge-based (orange) summer ΔT reconstructions9; d DHP174 (Dempster Highway Peatland, near 174 km marker) δDpore ice-based summer ΔT reconstruction (blue; filled area = ±1σ; this study) and smoothed 1900–2017 May–September GISTEMP ΔT anomalies for the study area (red; n.b., GISTEMP anomalies were smoothed with a 40-year cubic spline and normalised to the twentieth century mean of the δDpore ice ΔT reconstruction; a 1991–2001 data gap in GISTEMP was filled with ERA-interim data64); e 40-year smoothed Arctic (60–90°N) multi-proxy ΔT reconstruction7 (green; filled area = ±1σ) and mean 1997–2016 GISTEMP37 annual ΔT for the same area (green star); f June–September insolation at 65°N65; g Vostok, Law Dome and Mauna Loa composite pCO2 record66,67,68. Grey bars highlight warming intervals in the δDpore ice-based ΔT reconstruction that are also evident in other ΔT reconstructions in E. Beringia and at broader spatial scales