Fig. 5 | Nature Communications

Fig. 5

From: Excessive mechanical loading promotes osteoarthritis through the gremlin-1–NF-κB pathway

Fig. 5

NF-κB signalling mediates the catabolic effects of gremlin-1. a Luciferase assay for screening of downstream signalling pathways of gremlin-1 using reporter vectors containing a response element for each pathway or transcription factor. *P < 0.05 versus each vehicle control (one-way ANOVA test). b Activities of luciferase reporter vectors containing an NF-κB motif with rhGREM1 treatment. *P < 0.05 versus 0 (vehicle) (one-way ANOVA test). c Amount of proteoglycan released into culture medium from wild-type mouse femoral heads cultured with or without rhGREM1 (10 µg/mL) and IKK inhibitor BMS-345541 (5 µM) for 3 days. #P < 0.005 (one-way ANOVA test). d Amount of proteoglycan released into culture medium from RelAfl/fl (Rela-Cntl) and Col2a1-Cre;RelAfl/fl (Rela-cKO) mice femoral heads cultured with or without 10 µg/mL rhGREM1. ##P < 0.001 (one-way ANOVA test). e mRNA levels of marker genes in RelA-Cntl and RelA-cKO femoral heads cultured with or without rhGREM1. ##P < 0.001 (one-way ANOVA test). All data are expressed as mean ± SD of biologically independent three samples per group

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