Fig. 4 | Nature Communications

Fig. 4

From: Deviation from the matching law reflects an optimal strategy involving learning over multiple timescales

Fig. 4

Monkeys show the predicted tradeoff (model-independent analysis). ad Changes in undermatching, variance of choice and harvesting efficiency over experimental days. eg Monkeys show the bias-variance tradeoff. e Undermatching (1− the slope of matching behavior) and the variance of choice are significantly correlated negatively [permutation test: p < 10−8 for Monkey F and p < 10−8 for Monkey G]. This means that the monkeys trade off the bias (undermatching) against the variance of estimation, as predicted by our model. f By reducing variance of choice, monkeys improved their harvesting performance. The harvesting efficiency is significantly negatively correlated with the variance of choice [permutation test: p < 10−8 for Monkey F and p < 10−5 for Monkey G]. g Although increasing bias is harmful, benefits from reducing the variance of choice outweigh the costs [permutation test: p < 0.07 for Monkey F and p < 0.01 for Monkey G]. Note that in these figures squared root of variance is shown as variance

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