Table 1 Reindeer population parameters under five different rain-on-snow (ROS) scenarios

From: More frequent extreme climate events stabilize reindeer population dynamics

Population parameter Frequency of extreme ROS winters
Very low Low Medium High Very high
Mean, N 1820 1698 1546 1458 1369
Variance, N 189,040 165,458 152,002 102,965 71,090
Variance, growth rate 0.100 0.099 0.106 0.079 0.062
Quasi-extinction (%) 4.65% 4.59% 4.10% 1.25% 0.41%
True extinction (%) 0.84% 0.45% 0.30% 0.02% 0.00002%