Fig. 5 | Nature Communications

Fig. 5

From: A Hox-TALE regulatory circuit for neural crest patterning is conserved across vertebrates

Fig. 5

Hoxa2 and Hoxb2 neural crest (NC) enhancers are ancient paralogues and the lamprey hoxα2 enhancer appears to reflect the ancestral state. a Sequence alignment of mouse (m) Hoxa2 and Hoxb2 NC enhancers with that of lamprey (l) hoxα2, revealing short conserved sequence blocks (yellow). Corresponding consensus binding motifs for Krox20, Sox, Meis, and Pbx-Hox factors are shown below the alignment. These conserved sequences map to characterized cis-elements required for hindbrain (purple) or NC (green) activity in the mouse Hoxa2 (above) and Hoxb2 (below) enhancers. The 315 and 354 bp refer to the precise distances between the 5′ end of the Krox20 site and the 3′ end of the Pbx-Hox site of the mouse Hoxa2 and Hoxb2 enhancers, respectively. The activity of each NC enhancer in the hindbrain and NC is shown in schematic dorsal views. This activity differs between each enhancer, with hoxα2(l) showing the combined output of Hoxa2(m) and Hoxb2(m). b Multiple sequence alignment of gnathostome Hoxa2 NC enhancers with a homologous region upstream of lamprey hoxδ2. The lamprey hoxα2-hoxα3 and hoxδ2-hoxδ3 genomic loci are depicted, with hox gene exons annotated (blue arrows). The multiple sequence alignment reveals conservation of a Krox20 and a Sox site upstream of hoxδ2 (yellow shading in alignment), but other cis-elements, including NC3, are not conserved in sequence. This is depicted in the enhancer schematic, which details the conserved (shaded boxes) and divergent (empty boxes) cis-elements upstream of hoxδ2

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