Fig. 1 | Nature Communications

Fig. 1

From: Rationally designed carbohydrate-occluded epitopes elicit HIV-1 Env-specific antibodies

Fig. 1

Rational design of HIV-1 immunogens and elicitation of antibodies targeting the CONEs. a Fully glycosylated Env (upper panel) encodes a shield of glycan (dark blue) masking its conserved surface. In underglycosylated Env (lower panel) the carbohydrate-occluded neutralization epitopes (CONEs) are exposed. The transmitted HIV-1 viruses isolated from infected individuals are typically missing at least one carbohydrate in one CONE (shown in colors, see key in panel b). b Small protein mimics of the CONEs, designed by epitope transplantation, can serve as potential immunogens to focus the antibody response towards CONEs. c The experimental workflow includes biophysical characterization (circular dichroism, size exclusion chromatography), structural characterization (X-ray crystallography, NMR) of designed proteins, and immunogenic evaluation in animal models. d Consensus protein sequences of the CONEs. The site convergence data were derived from 183 Env sequences of clade C HIV-1 isolated from acutely infected patients. The solvent-exposed resides in Env are marked with red boxes

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