Table 1 Microwave-assisted amination of furfural (FUR)

From: N-formyl-stabilizing quasi-catalytic species afford rapid and selective solvent-free amination of biomass-derived feedstocks

Entry Reactant (mmol) Temp. (°C) Time (min) FUR Conv. (%) Product Yield (%) CB (%)
FUR FA AM AMF FDFAM 1 2 3
1 2 10 160 10 <5 3 0 0 0 99
2 2 6 10 160 10 100 <1 92 5 0 98
3 2 6 10 120 10 81 65 9 <2 0 95
15 92 67 17 2 0 94
4 2 6 10 180 3 99 2 78 17 0 98
200 2 100 <1 61 35 1 97
5a 2 6 10 180 60 83 <1 69 10 0 97
6 2 6 12 180 3 100 <1 98 <1 0 >99
7 2 6 6 200 3 97 <1 12 83 0 98
8 2 12 195 5 100 0 <2 2 88 92
9b 2 12 195 5 100 0 6 3 80 89
       10 100 0 11 11 66 88
  1. Reactants formic acid (FA), formamide (AM) and ammonium formate (AMF)
  2. aOil bath
  3. b0.5 mmol water added to reactant solution (5 wt% H2O)
  4. FDFAM: N,N’-(Furan-2-ylmethylene)diformamide, 1: N-(furan-2-ylmethyl)formamide, 2: N,N’-bis(furan-2-ylmethyl)formamide, 3: tris(furan-2-ylmethyl)amine), CB: carbon balance