Fig. 4 | Nature Communications

Fig. 4

From: Clothianidin seed-treatment has no detectable negative impact on honeybee colonies and their pathogens

Fig. 4

Microorganism/parasite prevalence. Percentage (±95% confidence limits) of honeybee colonies infected with the gut bacteria Gilliamella apicola and Snodgrassella alvi, the viruses acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), aphid lethal paralysis virus (ALPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), big Sioux River virus (BSRV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus type-A (DWV-A), deformed wing virus type-B (DWV-B), Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), Lake Sinai virus type-1 (LSV-1), Lake Sinai virus type-2 (LSV-2), slow bee paralysis virus (SBPV), Sacbrood virus (SBV), the microsporidians Nosema apis, Nosema ceranae or infested with the Varroa mite (Varroa destructor) in relation to treatment (control = white bars; clothianidin-treated = grey bars) in oilseed rape fields (n = 8 fields per treatment in 2013; n = 4 control and n = 6 treated fields in 2014) before and after the oilseed rape bloom in two years (2013 and 2014)

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