Fig. 2 | Nature Communications

Fig. 2

From: Quantification of frequency-dependent genetic architectures in 25 UK Biobank traits reveals action of negative selection

Fig. 2

MAF-dependence of SNP effects in evolutionary forward simulations. Forward simulations confirm that α model approximately holds above the MAF threshold \(T = \frac{k}{{4N_e\bar s}}\). We report simulated mean squared SNP effect sizes at a given MAF on a log-log plot, assuming τ = 0.4 and a genome wide selection coefficient distribution with mean \(\bar s = 10^{ - 3}\) and shape parameter k = 0.25. Data points represent the mean squared effect size of 1000 SNPs of similar MAF, calculated assuming Eq. (2). The blue curve represents mean squared effect sizes under the α model (Eq. 1) with α = −0.32, fitted to SNPs above the MAF threshold T. The MAF threshold T = 0.006 is indicated by a dotted red line. Source data are provided as a Source Data file

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