Fig. 4 | Nature Communications

Fig. 4

From: High-throughput single-cell rheology in complex samples by dynamic real-time deformability cytometry

Fig. 4

Single cell rheology on peripheral blood cells. a Dynamic RT-DC traces of individual cells in whole-blood showing erythrocytes (red), granulocytes (yellow) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, blue). Translocation time has been normalized to account for different velocities. b Cell shapes of typical blood cells reconstructed from even (dashed line) and odd (solid line) shape modes showing erythrocytes (red), granulocytes (yellow) and PBMCs (blue). c Apparent Young’s modulus E and d apparent viscosity η of purified cell samples. Insets show a comparison of the peak channel deformation \(\hat d_{{\mathrm{channel}}}\) c and the peak deformation \(\hat d_{{\mathrm{inlet}}}\) d for B cells and CD4+ T cells at the inlet. Statistical analysis in c and d includes data of three biological replicates from n = 381 erythrocytes, n = 243 granulocytes, n = 130 PBMCs, n = 737 B cells and n = 3079 CD4+ T cells. Experiments have been carried out in a 20 × 20 µm channel at a flow rate of 4 nl s−1. The mean shear rate of 9700 s−1 and a mean stress of 216 Pa on the cell surface (granulocytes and PBMCs) as well as the mean shear rate of 8600 s−1 and a mean stress of 128 Pa on cell surface (erythrocytes) has been derived from finite element method simulations considering the full microfluidic geometry. Statistical significance has been calculated from linear mixed models and error bars represent standard error of the mean (**p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001)

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