Fig. 3 | Nature Communications

Fig. 3

From: High-throughput single-cell rheology in complex samples by dynamic real-time deformability cytometry

Fig. 3

Single-cell rheology on HL60 cells. a Reconstructed deformation trace dinlet (top) and dchannel (bottom) from first four even (top) and first five odd (bottom) cell shape modes including a0, respectively (blue). Graphs show relaxation times τinlet and τchannel (yellow) as well as peak deformations \(\hat d\)inlet and \(\hat d\)channel (green). Dashed line (bottom) represents mean shear stress on cell surface. The red vertical lines indicate channel inlet and outlet position. b Histograms of characteristic times τinlet and τchannel are binned logarithmically and show wild-type cells (blue), cells after treatment with 1 μM CytoD (yellow) and the corresponding DMSO control (0.25% (v/v), green). c Histograms of peak deformation \(\hat d\)inlet and \(\hat d\)channel are binned logarithmically and show wild-type cells (blue), cells after treatment with 1 μM CytoD (yellow) and the corresponding DMSO control (green). In b and c data in a confidence interval of 3σ have been taken into account for the log-normal fit (red line), others are considered as outliers (white bins). dg Statistical analysis for three biological replicates comparing wild-type cells (n = 3382), cells after treatment with 1 μM CytoD (n = 2643) and corresponding DMSO control (n = 3965) for characteristic timescales τinlet and τchannel d, for peak deformation \(\hat d\)inlet and \(\hat d\)channel e, for Young’s modulus E f and viscosity η g. Measurements have been carried out in a 30 × 30 µm channel at a flow rate of 8 nl s−1. The mean shear rate of 5100 s−1 and the mean shear stress of 142 Pa on the cell surface has been derived from finite element method simulations considering the full microfluidic geometry. Statistical significance has been calculated from linear mixed models and error bars represent standard error of the mean (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001)

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