Fig. 1: | Nature Communications

Fig. 1

From: Patterns of genetic differentiation and the footprints of historical migrations in the Iberian Peninsula

Fig. 1

Spanish individuals grouped into clusters using genetic data only. a Binary tree showing the inferred hierarchical relationships between clusters inferred using genotype data of 1413 individuals (fineSTRUCTURE analysis A). The colours and points correspond to the clusters shown on the map, and the length of the coloured rectangles is proportional to the number of individuals assigned to that cluster. We combined some small clusters (Methods) and the thick black branches indicate the clades of the tree that we visualise in the map. Clusters are labelled according to the approximate location of most of their members, but geographic data was not used in the inference. b Each individual (n = 726) is represented by a point placed at (or close to, <24 Km) the centroid of their grandparents’ birthplaces. We only plot the individuals for whom all four grandparents were born within 80 km of their average birthplace, although the data for all individuals were used in the fineSTRUCTURE inference. The background is coloured according to the spatial densities of each cluster at the level of the tree where there are 14 clusters (Methods). The colour and symbol of each point corresponds to the cluster the individual was assigned to at a lower level of the tree, as shown in a. Spain’s autonomous communities are also shown. c A representation of changes in the linguistic and political boundaries in Iberia from ~930 to 1300 CE, adapted with permission from maps by Baldinger29. Different linguistic areas are shown with the colours and shading, and political boundaries with white borders (in the far right map only). Only the colours and labels of the Christian kingdoms have been added to aid visualisation