Fig. 1 | Nature Communications

Fig. 1

From: Feature-specific prediction errors and surprise across macaque fronto-striatal circuits

Fig. 1

Feature-based reversal learning task and anatomical recording locations. a Animals are presented with two black/white stimulus gratings to the left and right of a central fixation point. The stimulus gratings then become colored and start moving in opposite directions. Dimming of the stimuli served as Choice/Go signal. At the time of the dimming of the target stimulus the animals had to indicate the motion direction of the target stimulus by making a corresponding up or downward saccade in order to receive a liquid reward. Dimming of the target stimulus occurred either before, after or at the same time as the dimming of the distractor stimulus. b Left: Three features characterize each stimulus—color, location, and motion direction. Only the color feature is directly linked to reward outcome. The task is a deterministic reversal learning task, whereby only one color at a time is rewarded. Right: This reward contingency switches repeatedly and unannounced in a block-design fashion. c Illustration of recording locations relative to stereotaxic zero for monkey H (top) and monkey K (bottom). Neuron locations are collapsed across 5 mm coronal slices indicated by the gray bars on the brain on top. Red circles represent neurons that encoded a feature-specific prediction error, gray circles represent neurons that did not. Ant. ac. refers to anterior of anterior commissure. Imaging data provided by the Duke Center for in vivo microscopy73,74

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