Fig. 4 | Nature Communications

Fig. 4

From: A variable-stiffness tendril-like soft robot based on reversible osmotic actuation

Fig. 4

Reversible stiffness modulation and actuation of a tendril-like soft robot. a Tendril-like soft robot based on the osmotic actuator. A section of the tendril (the one snaking in-between the ACCEs layers) acts as osmotic membrane, another provides the soft effector. b, c Bending stiffness vs. time. b for a cut tendril of Passiflora caerulea (turgor decrease caused by dehydration), and c for the soft robot (reversible stiffness modulation, also correlated to turgor P, driven by the input voltage). d Tip rotation angle at selected times: the soft robot reversibly spanned ~500 deg over ~25 min. e Tip rotation angle vs. turgor, showing good repeatability. f Strong (~5-times) change in curvature (k) featured by the soft robot during reversible coiling (around a Passiflora caerulea stem). Scale bars: 5 mm

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