Fig. 2 | Nature Communications

Fig. 2

From: Age and pattern of the southern high-latitude continental end-Permian extinction constrained by multiproxy analysis

Fig. 2

Graphical log of Pacific Power Hawkesbury Bunnerong DDH-1 (PHKB1) well core. PHKB1 is located in the synclinal axis of the Sydney Basin (Fig. 1). Stratigraphy is tied to the chronostratigraphic scale of ref. 78 (updated 2017) using new CA-ID-TIMS U-Pb ages (indicated by an asterisk) and those of refs. 33,35. Correlation of lithostratigraphic units to all stage and substage boundaries remains tentative. Log shows lithologies (C coal, Md mudrocks, Ht heterolithic, interlaminated siltstone and sandstone, Sa sandstone, Gr conglomerate), with approximate representation of colour for mudrocks, and generalized interpretation of depositional environment. Selected plant group ranges based on macrofossils and dispersed cuticle recovered from core samples indicate the major turnover in the floras inferred to represent the EPE. First appearance datums of selected palynomorph taxa provide the basis for recognizing the local palynozones36,37,76. Two alternative positions are indicated for the PTB—a lower position, near the base of the P. crenulatus Palynozone, inferred on the basis of preliminary new CA-IDTIMS ages; and a higher position, near the base of the L. pellucidus Palynozone, based on ref. 33. Scale bars for plant macrofossils = 10 mm; for palynomorphs = 20 µm. Also shown are kaolinite/illite ratios, Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Nickel concentration normalized to Al, and δ13Corg values through the upper Permian and Lower Triassic succession of PHKB-1. Dep. Env. = inferred depositional environment, P. c. = Playfordiaspora crenulata Palynozone, P. m. = Protohaploxypinus microcorpus Palynozone, L. p. = Lunatisporites pellucidus Palynozone, AOM = amorphous organic matter

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