Fig. 5 | Nature Communications

Fig. 5

From: Effective weight control via an implanted self-powered vagus nerve stimulation device

Fig. 5

Weight loss of fully grown adult rats after implantation of the VNS device. a Representative images of rats in the VNS group (n = 4) and the control groups (n = 4 for each control group). b Average body weight of rats in different groups over time (implantation was performed after 7 days of observation under normal conditions). c Rat’s food intake in different groups over time. d Final body weight of rats in different groups. e Final daily food intake in steady state of rats in different groups. f Representative images of white adipose tissue (epididymal fat pad and perirenal fat pad) of the VNS group and the control group (scale bar = 2 cm). g Adipose tissue weight of rats in different groups. h Epididymal fat pad/body weight ratio (EBR) of rats in different groups. i Percentage of weight loss over time after implantation of the VNS device. All data in b, c, and g are presented as mean ± s.d. In d, e, and h (box plots), dots are the mean, center lines are the median, box limits are the lower quartile (Q1) and upper quartile (Q3), and whiskers are the most extreme data points that are no more than 1.5× (Q3–Q1) from the box limits. Statistical analysis was performed by two-tailed unpaired Student’s t tests. n.s., non-significant (P > 0.05); *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001

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