Computed tomography (CT) 3D projection images and hematology data. a–c Serial CT images over time of the VNS group, Sham group, and Lap group, respectively. Schematics on the left show the setup of each group. A series of CT images (coronal and sagittal) show a representative rat for each group at different time points. The enlarged views of the implantation site are shown at the end. d–i Hematology results of all four groups over time (n = 3 for each group). d Blood glucose (GLU) levels. e Infection-related lymphocytes (LYM) levels. f Hematopoietic function-related red blood cell (RBC) levels. g Hepatological function-related alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. h Renal function-related creatinine (CRE) levels. i Electrolyte metabolism-related calcium (Ca) levels. j H&E stains of vital organs (heart, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, bowel, stomach, and esophagus) at different time points (1 day, 7 days and 15 days) post implantation. All data in d–i are presented as mean ± s.d.