Fig. 2 | Nature Communications

Fig. 2

From: Local hippocampal fast gamma rhythms precede brain-wide hyperemic patterns during spontaneous rodent REM sleep

Fig. 2

REMS hyperemia is generalized but strongest in the hippocampus. a Vascular distributions for all animals in three regions (cortex, hippocampus, thalamus) for five different states: quiet wake (QW), active wake (AW), non-REM sleep (NREMS), REM sleep (REMS), and phasic REM sleep (REMS-ph). QW and NREM overlap except in the thalamus. AW is an intermediate state between QW and REM. Hippocampus shows the clearest separation between AW, REMS, and REM-phasic distribution. Horizontal axis: CBV amplitude (% from baseline). Vertical axis: Event count. Circles and horizontal bars show the mean and standard-deviation for each behavioral state. Cohen’s d relative to QW are given for all three regions. b Functional connectivity matrices for all four sleep stages, averaged over all recordings (n = 4 animals). Each matrix displays the Pearson correlation between all pairs of regional CBV variables. Note the similarity between QW and NREM consisting of three co-active blocks including cortical, hippocampal, and thalamic regions and the gradual synchronization of all regional signals during AW and REMS. c Vascular amplification obtained by averaging AW, REMS, and REMS-ph mean values (Cortex, Hippocampus, Thalamus, and Whole) for all recordings, grouped by recording plane. Strikingly, all four regions consistently display vascular amplification, with highest ratio obtained by comparing phasic REMS (REMS-ph) and quiet wake (QW) in the dorsal hippocampus

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