Fig. 1 | Nature Communications

Fig. 1

From: Closing the gap between palaeontological and neontological speciation and extinction rate estimates

Fig. 1

Speciation modes reflecting the difference in phylogenetic and stratigraphic interpretations of speciation and extinction rates. ac Three alternative modes of speciation39. Each rectangle corresponds to a distinct species with green-shaded rectangles representing ancestral species. a Cladogenesis via budding: one new species arises, the ancestral species survives. This type of speciation happens with rate λ(1 − β) in the BDC model. b Cladogenesis via bifurcation: the ancestral species goes extinct and two new species arise with rate λβ. c Anagenesis: the ancestral species goes extinct and is replaced by one new species with rate λa. d Phylogenetic versus stratigraphic interpretations of speciation and extinction rates. The phylogeny on the left describes three possible speciation histories (three coloured trees on the right). The coloured segments represent distinct (morpho)species. Phylogenetic estimates of speciation and extinction rates, λ and μ, differ from fossil-based estimates, λ* and μ*, in two out of the three cases. The rates are only the same in the case of pure budding speciation (the first coloured tree from the left)

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