Fig. 2 | Nature Communications

Fig. 2

From: The origins of malaria artemisinin resistance defined by a genetic and transcriptomic background

Fig. 2

Genetic and transcriptomic population structure of P. falciparum isolates by geography. a Neighbor-joining tree showing parasite transcriptome population structure across GMS using HPI and GAM adjusted expression data. A magnified view of the branch structure is shown in the circular subpanel below the tree. Colored asterisks on branching point indicate an over-representation of cohort isolates from the respective sites (n > 10 and p-value < 0.05, hypergeometric test). The black dotted line is drawn at the main branch separating the majority of the w- and e-GMS samples. b Heat map of geF for 5061 genes across 11 field sites of the GMS. The length of scale bar is 0.1 as shown in bottom. Six groups (Grp1 to Grp6) were used to characterize the expression differences between w- and e-GMS which was obtained by K-mean clustering based on Euclidean distance. Density plot of geF was generated to compare expression prevalence of each group in w-GMS (blue curve) and e-GMS (black curve shaded in gray) isolates. Enriched MPM pathways for Grp1, Grp2, and Grp6 shown on the right were determined by hypergeometric test at p-value < 0.05. Full list of the enriched pathways are shown in Supplementary Data 4