Fig. 8 | Nature Communications

Fig. 8

From: Differential lateral and basal tension drive folding of Drosophila wing discs through two distinct mechanisms

Fig. 8

Two distinct mechanisms drive H/H and H/P fold formation. a Top: scheme of a cross-sectional view of an unfolded epithelium. Note that basal tension is greater than apical tension. Basal tension depends on ECM. The H/H fold and the H/P fold form through two distinct mechanisms. Left: prior to H/H fold formation (pre-fold) a local reduction of ECM leads to a relaxation of basal tension. The decrease of basal tension results in the widening of the basal side of the pre-fold cells; cells adopt a wedge-like shape that drives fold formation. Right: prior and during H/P fold formation, fluctuations of F-actin accumulation at lateral cell interfaces leads to increased lateral tension driving pulsatile cell height contractions. Since apical tension is lower than basal tension, cell shortening leads to apical invagination and fold formation. b Simplified picture of mechanism of fold formation. Top: basal tension is greater than apical tension in the unfolded epithelium. Left: in the H/H fold, high basal tension of the neighboring cells stretches the basal surface of the fold cells, in which basal tension is reduced. Cells widen basally and reduce cell height to maintain their volume. Right: in the H/P fold, high lateral tension leads to a reduction in cell height. Since basal tension is high, the shortened cells deform the apical surface inwards, while the basal surface resists deformation

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