Abstract
Quasicrystals differ from conventional crystals and amorphous materials in that they possess longrange order without periodicity. They exhibit orders of rotational symmetry which are forbidden in periodic crystals, such as five, ten, and twelvefold, and their structures can be described with complex aperiodic tilings such as Penrose tilings and Stampfli–Gaehler tilings. Previous theoretical work explored the structure and properties of a hypothetical fourfold symmetric quasicrystal—the socalled Fibonacci square grid. Here, we show an experimental realisation of the Fibonacci square grid structure in a molecular overlayer. Scanning tunnelling microscopy reveals that fullerenes (C_{60}) deposited on the twofold surface of an icosahedral Al–Pd–Mn quasicrystal selectively adsorb atop Mn atoms, forming a Fibonacci square grid. The sitespecific adsorption behaviour offers the potential to generate relatively simple quasicrystalline overlayer structures with tunable physical properties and demonstrates the use of molecules as a surface chemical probe to identify atomic species on similar metallic alloy surfaces.
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Introduction
Quasicrystalline phases have been observed in a range of materials, including intermetallics^{1}, liquid crystals^{2}, polymers^{3,4}, colloids^{5,6}, perovskites^{7} and overlayer structures of single elements^{8,9,10,11} and molecules^{12,13}. All of these quasicrystalline bulk and epitaxial phases exhibit forbidden rotational symmetries. In 2002 Lifshitz^{14} pointed out that quasicrystals are not exclusively defined in terms of possessing forbidden symmetries. He introduced the Fibonacci square grid, which exhibits fourfold symmetry, but is quasicrystalline^{14}. The square grid is constructed by superimposing two orthogonal Fibonacci linear grids (Fig. 1a). The Fibonacci linear grid is produced using short (S) and long (L) sections and certain substitution rules: S → L and L → LS. These conditions create a sequence: S, L, LS, LSL, LSLLS… . When L = τS, where τ is the golden mean (\({\textstyle{{1 + \sqrt 5 } \over 2}}\) = 1.618…), this sequence models a onedimensional quasicrystal. The Fibonacci square grid is constituted by three tiles (S × S, S × L and L × L) highlighted in Fig. 1a by different colours. Like other complex aperiodic tilings, the Fibonacci square grid follows specific rules for tile placement and frequency, and exhibits τinflation symmetry^{14}, i.e., the enlargement or shrinking of dimensional quantities by τ. The theoretical construct was later extended to a cubic Fibonacci tiling in three dimensions^{15}. Lifshitz^{14} noted at the time that to the best of his knowledge, no alloys or real quasicrystals existed with the structure of the square or cubic Fibonacci tilings.
The physical properties of a hypothetical quasicrystal with the square Fibonacci grid structure have been explored theoretically, including its electronic, phononic and transport behaviours^{15,16,17}. Dallapiccola et al.^{18} examined the plasmonic properties of a lithographically fabricated Fibonacci square grid of a submicrometre scale. Similarly, Vardeny et al.^{19} studied the photonic properties of a system with a stacking of slabs of two different periodic materials in a Fibonacci sequence, as an example of onedimensional quasicrystalline structure. In this work we present experimental observation of the Fibonacci square grid in a molecular overlayer system.
Results
Substrate structure
We used the surface of an intermetallic quasicrystal, icosahedral (i)Al–Pd–Mn, as a template for C_{60} adsorption. The icosahedral quasicrystal possesses two, three and fivefold rotational symmetry axes. Here we have used a surface perpendicular to the twofold axis. The substrate surface was prepared as explained in the Methods section. Lowenergy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) were utilised to characterise the surface.
The analysis of kvectors of the LEED pattern (Fig. 1b) reveals that the surface corresponds to a bulk termination (Supplementary Note 1). This means that the surface has twofold symmetry, as expected from the bulk. Consistent with the LEED results, fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) of STM images from the clean surface are also twofold (Fig. 2a, see further discussion later). STM images can also be explained as bulk atomic planes. The observation of twofold symmetry of the surface is in agreement with previous STM results^{20,21} (Supplementary Note 2).
STM of C_{60} overlayer
When C_{60} is deposited on the clean surface at 600 K, a quasicrystalline network is formed, as shown in Fig. 1c. A majority of the C_{60} molecules (70% of the total observed) lie at the vertices of a Fibonacci square grid of S = 1.26 nm, L = 2.04 nm. This grid is superimposed in Fig. 1d (black lines). The remaining minority of C_{60} can be placed at the vertices of a τdeflated grid. The τdeflated grid is shown by white lines in Fig. 1d, where L′ = L/τ = S and S′ = S/τ. The origin of low occupancy of C_{60} at the τdeflated vertices will be discussed later.
We present FFT patterns taken from the clean and C_{60} dosed surfaces in Fig. 2a, b. For the calculation of the C_{60} pattern, the substrate was filtered out so that only the molecular film made a contribution to the FFT. Spots with equal kvectors are highlighted by circles, indicating first and secondorder spots. The FFT spots for the substrate (Fig. 2a) and C_{60} (Fig. 2b) appear at the same kvectors but their intensity distribution is different. The real space values corresponding to the kvectors of FFTs are related to the length scales of L and S.
The Fibonacci square grid structure of the C_{60} overlayer is confirmed by comparing the FFT of the STM image with the reciprocal space transform of the Fibonacci square grid (Fig. 2c). A grid of S (=1.26 nm) and L (=2.04 nm) lengths was chosen to allow for a direct comparison to the experimental FFT results. The pattern fits extremely well with the FFT of the C_{60} overlayer (Fig. 2c).
We also compare autocorrelation functions that are calculated from the STM image and from a model Fibonacci square grid. Figure 2d is the autocorrelation function of the C_{60} molecules in the STM image shown in Fig. 1c. Similar to the FFT of the C_{60} molecules (Fig. 2b), the contribution from the substrate in STM was removed so that the autocorrelation function arises solely from the C_{60} molecules. Figure 2e shows the autocorrelation function of a perfect grid, i.e., a point object is placed at every vertex of a Fibonacci square grid of S = 1.26 nm and L = 2.04 nm. The size of grid used to calculate the autocorrelation was 50 nm × 50 nm, but we have shown only a section for comparison. As expected, spots in the autocorrelation function of the model grid form a perfect Fibonacci square grid. In agreement with the model, the autocorrelation function of the STM image can also be mapped by a Fibonacci square grid. The tile lengths of the grid are also S and L. This means that C_{60} molecules at the τdeflated grid do not contribute to the autocorrelation pattern. This is expected, as only a fraction of the τdeflated vertices are occupied by C_{60}. In a perfect Fibonacci square grid, the number of vertices in the τdeflated grid is τ^{2} times the number of vertices in the original grid. The relative density of vertices of the τdeflated grid that do not overlap with the original grid is thus τ^{2} − 1 = τ, i.e., there are ~162% more than the vertices of the original grid. However, only ~8% of these vertices are occupied by C_{60} as observed by STM, and therefore these molecules do not produce additional features in the autocorrelation pattern.
Discussion
The specific adsorption sites of the molecules will now be considered. For this, we present the atomic structure of the twofold surface of the iAl–Pd–Mn quasicrystal in Fig. 3a, b. The structure corresponds to highdensity planes of the bulk atomic model proposed by Boudard et al.^{22}. The STM images of the substrate are consistent with these atomic planes (see Supplementary Note 2). Following direct measurement from the STM data (Fig. 1c) and comparison with theoretical autocorrelation results (Fig. 2e), the size of the C_{60} Fibonacci grid is known. This grid (S = 1.26 nm, L = 2.04 nm) fits with the separations of the Mn atoms in the surface plane (Fig. 3a, b), suggesting that individual C_{60} molecules adsorb directly on top of these Mn atoms. Aluminium adsorption sites are ruled out, as although Al atoms are separated by similar S and L lengths, the Al density at the surface would provide too many adsorption sites—producing a disordered film. This is also true for Pd sites.
The Mnbased adsorption model is further strengthened by the Fibonacci square grid structure of the C_{60} overlayer and the substrate model structure. We present a block of the atomic structure of the iAl–Pd–Mn quasicrystal, simultaneously displaying the five and twofold planes (Fig. 3c). For clarity we have shown only Mn atoms in the model. Mn atoms are located at the centre of pseudoMackay clusters, the building blocks of the iAl–Pd–Mn quasicrystal^{23}. The fivefold surface intersects the centre of the clusters and the Mn atoms can be mapped with a Penrose P1 tiling. The edge length of the tiling is ~0.77 nm, which is confirmed by STM^{24}. The twofold surface terminates at specific planes of the P1 tiling, such that Mn atoms form a Fibonacci square grid. A few remaining Mn atoms are located at τdeflated positions. Two of these planes are marked in Fig. 3c. However, Al and Pd atoms at the surface plane do not form a Fibonacci square grid. They show twofold symmetry.
A comparison between the detailed structure of the C_{60} overlayer observed by STM, and Mn atomic positions in the model structure, also indicates that Mn atoms are the bonding sites. Figure 3a shows S × S and S × L tiles from the model whose vertices are decorated with C_{60}. An additional C_{60} molecule occupies at an S/τ (0.77 nm) deflated position. The inset on Fig. 3a is an STM image of the corresponding motif. In the model, the S/τ Mn position is too close to its nearest Mn neighbour to allow neighbouring C_{60} molecules to adsorb without significant molecule–molecule interaction. The steric interaction between neighbouring C_{60} at these positions thus results in a slight spatial displacement away from the Mn adsorption sites. This displacement translates into the autocorrelation function, where some spots are displaced from the perfect Fibonacci grid producing deformed squares, see a marked distorted square in Fig. 2d. However, these τdeflated positions can also be occupied without C_{60}–C_{60} displacement, as Fig. 3b shows. Here, C_{60} molecules occupy Mn sites that create inverted Fibonacci sequences (again, inset is an STM motif). These positions may also contribute to the deformation of the experimental autocorrelation spots, as they simultaneously represent two inverted square grid tiles (S × S and S × L). In addition, the density of Mn atoms at τdeflated positions is very low in the model structure, compared to their density at the original grid. This is consistent with the low density of C_{60} at the τdeflated grid.
C_{60} is an excellent electron acceptor^{25} and Mn is electron rich^{12}. Therefore, a strong electronic molecule–substrate interaction at Mn sites is expected. Such behaviour was previously observed for Bi and Si on the fivefold surface of iAl–Pd–Mn, where the adsorbates were observed to bond to Mn atoms^{9,26}. Similarly, C_{60} was found to bond to Fe on the fivefold iAl–Cu–Fe surface^{13}. The iAl–Cu–Fe quasicrystal and iAl–Pd–Mn have a very similar structure^{27}.
In conclusion, we have shown that C_{60} molecules form a Fibonacci square grid on the twofold surface of iAl–Pd–Mn. The observation of such a structure extends the quasicrystal family beyond the forbidden symmetry systems previously observed. More generally, the sparse density of the minority constituents of complex metallic alloys presents a unique adsorption landscape for the construction of molecular arrangements on a chosen scale; for example, this methodology could permit the construction of a molecular magnet array of chosen magnetic behaviour. Additionally, understanding the propagation of waves inside five, ten, and twelvefold quasicrystalline lattices as waveguides is an attractive problem due to the nearly isotropic Brillouin zones. However, it is a rather intractable one. A suitably constructed simplified Fibonacci square grid structure could therefore provide a useful steppingstone to the understanding of complex phenomena such as the formation of photonic quasicrystals^{19}. We have also shown that C_{60} can be utilised as a chemical probe that can tag unique adsorption sites of a complex structure, and thus provide an insight into the surface structure. This technique can of course be extended to other quasicrystalline and complex metallic alloy surface structures, providing that the experimental conditions are adequate; primarily the surface must have a unique or sparse enough adsorption network to provide meaningful topographic data.
Methods
Surface and thin film preparation
A twofold Al–Pd–Mn quasicrystal was polished with successively finer grades of diamond paste from 6 μm down to 0.25 μm, before solvent washing with methanol in an ultrasonic bath. Upon insertion into ultrahigh vacuum the sample was cleaned by several sputter–anneal cycles (30 min sputtering, 2 h anneal at 900 K) to form a flat surface. Surface ordering and cleanliness was assessed with LEED. STM was used to investigate local atomic and molecular arrangements. C_{60} was deposited using thermal evaporation, while the substrate was held at 600 K. The surface was exposed to the source at a rate of 0.1 monolayer per minute. A range of molecular coverages were investigated.
Data availability
The main data supporting the findings of this study are included in this article and its Supplementary information files. Additional STM data are available from the corresponding author upon request.
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Acknowledgements
This work was supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (grant number EP/D071828/1). Partial support from the European Integrated Centre for the Development of New Metallic Alloys and Compounds is also acknowledged. The authors would like to thank M. Shimoda from the National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Japan for supplying the programme to analyse the surface atomic structure of the Al–Pd–Mn quasicrystal.
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H.R.S. proposed the project. S.C. performed the STM and LEED experiments, analysed the data and drafted the manuscript. All authors contributed to discussion and interpretation of the data and to the manuscript. H.R.S. and R.M. supervised the whole project.
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Coates, S., Smerdon, J.A., McGrath, R. et al. A molecular overlayer with the Fibonacci square grid structure. Nat Commun 9, 3435 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467018059507
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467018059507
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