Fig. 3 | Nature Communications

Fig. 3

From: A balance between aerodynamic and olfactory performance during flight in Drosophila

Fig. 3

Side-by-side comparisons between the original and modified wings. a, b Comparison between original and modified wings that cut off part of the trailing edge at k = 0.65. Color contour indicates the cycle-averaged lift coefficient on the wing surface. c Time course of lift coefficient. d, e Comparison of antenna vortex (AV) and leading-edge vortex (LEV) formation at the mid-downstroke. f Time course of vortex circulation of AV at the body center and LEV at 70% wingspan. g, h Odor plume structures visualized by neutral-buoyant particles. (i) Time course of odor mass flux over antennae. jl Cycle-averaged lift coefficient (j), total force-to-power ratio (k), and odor mass flux at antenna (l) as function of the reduced frequency (k). The modified wings produced similar LEV (f, bottom plot), better lift coefficient (c, j), better force-to-power ratio (k), but significantly worse antenna vortex (f, top plot) and odor mass flux (i, l). a, b Comparison between original and modified wings that cut off part of the trailing edge at k = 0.65. Color contour indicates the cycle-averaged lift coefficient on the wing surface. c Time course of lift coefficient. d, e Comparison of antenna vortex (AV) and leading-edge vortex (LEV) formation at the mid-downstroke. f Time course of vortex circulation of AV at the body center and LEV at 70% wingspan. g, h Odor plume structures visualized by neutral-buoyant particles. i Time course of odor mass flux over antennae. jl Cycle-averaged lift coefficient (j), total force-to-power ratio (k), and odor mass flux at antenna (l) as function of the reduced frequency (k). The modified wings produced similar LEV (f, bottom plot), better lift coefficient (c, j), better force-to-power ratio (k), but significantly worse AV(f, top plot) and odor mass flux (i, l)