Fig. 2 | Nature Communications

Fig. 2

From: A balance between aerodynamic and olfactory performance during flight in Drosophila

Fig. 2

Fruit fly in forward flight at four different reduced frequencies. a Top view of the wake structures by Q-criterion and color coded with normalized pressure. b Vortex structures over antennae of the fruit fly and visualized using span-wise vorticity. Blue indicates clockwise vorticity. Both wake structure and antenna vortex intensify at higher reduced frequencies. c, d Odor plume structure visualized using neutral-buoyant particles from lateral (c) and dorsal (d) releases: snapshot at the time point of peak odor mass flux to antennae. The colors of the particle indicate different release locations. As flapping frequency increases, more odor particles vertically below the body are trapped and flicked up toward the antennae. However, horizontally, only a narrow stream of particles (green) in the direct path of antenna passes through the antenna region, regardless of flapping frequency (see also Supplementary Movie 1). e, f Time course of lift coefficient (e) and odor mass flux over the antennae (f) under different reduced frequency. The shaded areas represent downstrokes. Lift coefficients peak at mid-downstroke phase and decrease with higher reduced frequencies. However, antenna odor mass flux peaks during the downstroke to upstroke transition phase and increases with higher reduced frequencies