Fig. 2 | Nature Communications

Fig. 2

From: Emerging Southeast Asian PfCRT mutations confer Plasmodium falciparum resistance to the first-line antimalarial piperaquine

Fig. 2

The PfCRT mutations H97Y, F145I, M343L, and G353V confer PPQ resistance. When edited into to a PPQ-sensitive Dd2 pfcrt background, F145I, M343L, and G353V each conferred PPQ resistance, as determined using the in vitro PSA0–3 h. In this PPQ survival assay, tightly synchronized ring-stage parasites were exposed to 200 nM PPQ for 48 h, followed by removal of drug and further culture incubation for 24 h. Survival rates were determined as a percentage of the parasitemia obtained with each line mock-treated with drug vehicle, and are presented as means ± SEM. When H97Y or M343L were removed from the contemporary Cambodian field isolates PH1008-C and PH1263-C, PPQ resistance was fully ablated. N, n = 2–4, 2 (Supplementary Table 4). Significance was determined using Mann–Whitney U tests. Comparisons are shown between pfcrt-edited parasites and their isogenic controls. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01

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