Fig. 2: | Nature Communications

Fig. 2

From: Critical Southern Ocean climate model biases traced to atmospheric model cloud errors

Fig. 2

Schematic diagrams of the mixed layer heat budget. a the real world, b any coupled model, c a simplified coupled model conceptual case, where we assume a small stand-alone ocean model combined horizontal and vertical heat transport convergence bias (ΔCO) and a small coupled ocean heat transport convergence response (ΔCR). FOBS is the observed surface heat flux, COBS is the observed combined vertical and horizontal ocean heat transport convergence and TOBS is the mixed layer temperature or SST. The simulated mixed layer temperature bias, ΔT, is assumed to be equal to the SST bias. The simulated surface heat flux bias, ΔF, can be decomposed into a stand-alone atmospheric model bias (ΔFA) and a coupled response (ΔFR). The simulated combined vertical and horizontal ocean heat transport convergence bias, ΔC, can be decomposed into a stand-alone ocean model bias (ΔCO) and a coupled response (ΔCR). In (c) the simplified conceptual case since ΔCO and ΔCR are assumed small, ΔC & ΔF must both also be small. Hence, ΔFA must be approximately compensated for by ΔFR