Fig. 1 | Nature Communications

Fig. 1

From: Scutoids are a geometrical solution to three-dimensional packing of epithelia

Fig. 1

A mathematical model for curved epithelia uncovers a novel geometrical solid. a Scheme representing planar columnar/cubic monolayer epithelia. Cells are simplified as prisms. b Scheme illustrating an invagination or fold in a columnar/cubic monolayer epithelium. Cells adopt the called “bottle shape” that would be simplified as frusta. c Mathematical model for an epithelial tube. A Voronoi diagram is drawn on the surface of a cylinder (representing the apical surface of the epithelial tube). The seeds of each Voronoi cells are projected in an outer cylinder (representing the basal surface of the epithelial tube). This can induce a topological change, a cell intercalation. Yellow and blue cells are neighbours in the apical surface but not in the basal surface. The reciprocal occurs for red and green cells. Ra, radius from the centre of the cylinders to the apical surface. Rb, radius from the centre of the cylinders to the basal surface. d Modelling clay figures illustrating two scutoids participating in a transition and two schemes for scutoids solids. Scutoids are characterized by having at least a vertex in a different plane to the two bases and present curved surfaces. e A dorsal view of a Protaetia speciose beetle of the Cetoniidae family. The white lines highlight the resemblance of its scutum, scutellum and wings with the shape of the scutoids. Illustration from Dr. Nicolas Gompel, with permission. f 3D reconstruction of the cells forming a tube with \({R_{b}}/{R_{a}} = 2.5\). The four-cell motif (green, yellow, blue, and red cells) shows an apico-basal cell intercalation. g Detail of the apico-basal transition, showing how the blue and yellow cells contact in the apical part, but not in the basal part. The figure also shows that scutoids present concave surfaces

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