Fig. 3 | Nature Communications

Fig. 3

From: Developing China’s Ecological Redline Policy using ecosystem services assessments for land use planning

Fig. 3

Spatial results for each step of the spatial planning process to select the ecological redline areas for Shanghai Municipality. a Existing protected areas for 2014, small patches with limited connectivity, representing only 7% of Shanghai’s land area. We used the Ministry of Environmental Protection criteria to formulate three indicators for determining optimal ERAs: b ecosystem services hotspots; c ecologically fragile hotspots; and d biodiversity hotspots. Next optimal ERAs (determined from socioecological criteria) were presented to stakeholders who refined ERAs. e Stakeholders indicated areas of concern meaning areas they felt were not manageable (i.e., removal of small patches) or pose serious social and economic burdens to communities (i.e., removal of major disagreement areas). f Targeted ERAs are not the final ERAs but Shanghai Municipality is considering using them to form the final ERAs. The maps in this figure were made by the author in ArcGIS software for use in this paper

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