Fig. 9 | Nature Communications

Fig. 9

From: A model for super El Niños

Fig. 9

Thermocline and SST anomalies during a simulated super El Niño. In this simulation, we drove an ocean model after augmenting Pacific wind anomalies during El Niño with IOD-induced Pacific wind anomalies—the wind anomalies were from atmospheric simulations. The contributions of El Niño and IOD to the simulated super El Niño are separately shown in a, d and b, e respectively—panels a, b show thermocline anomalies, while panels d, e show SST anomalies. c Thermocline anomalies, and f SST anomalies, associated with the simulated super El Niño. g Temporal evolution of Nino3 anomalies calculated from the SST anomalies shown in df: the dashed line is the contribution from IOD, the solid line from El Niño, and the shaded curve is that for the simulated super El Niño. Panels h, i are from additional ocean simulations, where two different realizations of IOD-induced Pacific winds drove the ocean. In h the impact of IODs occurring without El Niño, and in i that of IODs co-occurring with El Niño were simulated (see text for details of the atmospheric simulations). Note that the IOD-induced part of Nino3 SST anomalies are stronger in i than in h. The observational analog of a, b, d, e are shown in the Supplementary Figs. 1214

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