Fig. 7 | Nature Communications

Fig. 7

From: A model for super El Niños

Fig. 7

Simulation of monthly tropical surface wind anomalies during 2006. ad Longitude time evolution of monthly equatorial zonal wind anomalies from observations (a) and numerical experiments (bd). In the control experiment shown in b, the atmospheric model was forced with diabatic heating anomalies over the tropics covering the Indian and Pacific Oceans. In a sensitivity experiment, the forcing was prescribed only over the Indian (c), and in another, the forcing was prescribed only over the Pacific Ocean (d). eh Surface wind anomalies, averaged between July and October, for the observations (e) and the numerical experiments (fh); here, f is the control experiment, and g and h are the counterparts of c and d above. Comparing the surface wind anomalies from g against that from f, we estimated that the Indian Ocean forcing alone accounted for 84% of the anomalous zonal westerly amplitude over the equatorial western Pacific (160°E–170°W). While the Pacific convection also contributes a minor amount, oppositely signed surface wind anomalies to its west and east (h) weaken the the impact of these winds on the eastern-ocean. All the data were lightly smoothed with a 3-month running mean filter. The maps in the figure were rendered with the NCAR Command Language software (https://doi.org/10.5065/D6WD3XH5) from the Global Self-consistent, Hierarchical, High-resolution Geography Database (GSHHG). The GSHHG is available online at https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/shorelines/gshhs.html

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