Fig. 10 | Nature Communications

Fig. 10

From: A model for super El Niños

Fig. 10

Climate anomalies during the 1997 and 2015 El Niños. The strong eastern-ocean intensified structure of SST and SSH anomalies in 1997 (b, c) contrast with the eastern-ocean damped variations in 2015 (f, g). Anomalies of zonal surface wind stress (τ x ) (a, e) and OLR (d, h) are also shown. Further, an elongated, off-equatorial band of enhanced SSH and SST anomalies is seen stretching west from Baja California and Mexico in 2015; this is markedly absent in 1997. Jacox et al.63 further contrast the nature of coastal southern California’s SSH anomalies during 1997 and 2015. The absence of strong far-eastern Pacific SST anomalies in 2015 is reflected in the lack of negative OLR anomalies over this region—this may be linked to the many failed rainfall forecasts for Peru and southern California64 during the winter of 2015/16. Further details of the differences during the two El Niños may be found in Xue and Kumar49. All data were averaged from October to December—this season corresponds to the peak of SST anomalies during 201549. The maps in the figure were rendered with the NCAR Command Language software (https://doi.org/10.5065/D6WD3XH5) from the Global Self-consistent, Hierarchical, High-resolution Geography Database (GSHHG). The GSHHG is available online at https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/shorelines/gshhs.html

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