Fig. 3 | Nature Communications

Fig. 3

From: Spatio-temporal variability of processes across Antarctic ice-bed–ocean interfaces

Fig. 3

Present and past knowledge of continental margins morphology. a Bathymetric (yellow) and subglacial topography (orange) data coverage used to reconstruct the BEDMAP2 subglacial topographic dataset34 including the bathymetry around the margins from the IBCSO dataset56 (here, multibeam coverage only). b Seismic data coverage (yellow, Antarctic Seismic Data Library System, https://sdls.ogs.trieste.it) from Antarctic Peninsula (AP), Amundsen Sea (AS), Bellingshausen Sea (BS), Ross Sea (RS), Weddell Sea (WS), Wilkes Land (WL), Prydz Bay (PB) and Sabrina Coast-Totten Glacier (TG) continental margins. Existing (yellow squares) or short-term scheduled (red) Ocean Drilling Program/International Ocean Discrovery Program drilling sites (https://iodp.tamu.edu/scienceops/maps.html) used to constrain and restore past continental margins morphology. White or gray areas indicate little or no data coverage. c Multichannel seismic profiles BRG80-007 and ATC82-208 in the Ross Sea with existing deep drill site locations (projected) from Deep Sea Drilling Program Leg 28116. d Line drawing52 showing the horizons from the Oligocene-early Miocene Ross Sea Unconformity RSU6 to the Pleistocene RSU1 across the eastern Ross Sea. Progradation of the continental shelf margin occurred from RSU4A to RSU3 (early-late Miocene, 19-10 Ma51,52), along with channel-levee complexes formation in the deeper areas (green shade). During the next phase between RSU3 and RSU2 (late Miocene-early Pliocene, 10–4 Ma51,52), trough-mouth fans formed on the continental slope and sedimentation rates gradually decreased in the continental shelf and rise (pink shade). The change from a prograding to aggrading continental shelf edge (indicated by the arrows) is observed after RSU2 from early to mid-Pliocene (4–3.7 Ma), when the shelf profile became landward deepening

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