Fig. 1 | Nature Communications

Fig. 1

From: Uncertainty about social interactions leads to the evolution of social heuristics

Fig. 1

Implementation of a heterogeneity in social interactions, b uncertainty about social interactions and c cooperation strategies in our simulation model. a Individuals face various social situations, always containing an element of cooperation. If an individual cooperates, she provides a fixed benefit to her interaction partner (b = 2), at a variable consequence (c) to herself. c can take any value between −3 (a severe cost) and 1 (a benefit; horizontal bar). Payoff matrices show payoffs to the row player for the specific cases where c is equal to −3 (red), −1 (yellow) and 1 (blue). b Uncertainty (u) determines how individuals perceive the value of c. Specifically, this perceived value cp is drawn from a beta distribution with mode c, and variance that is proportional to uncertainty. For u = 0, the variance of the distribution is 0 (cp = c); for u = 1, the distribution is uniform. c Each individual carries 17 genes (indicated by squares). Gene S determines whether the individual implements a heuristic (S = 0) or a context-dependent (S = 1) strategy. If S = 0, the individual always implements substrategy H (regardless of c). If S = 1, the individual implements either of her two context-dependent substrategies (C1 or C2), depending on the value of threshold gene T and her perception of c for the current situation (cp). If cp > T, the individual implements substrategy C1; if cp < T, she implements substrategy C2. Each substrategy consists of five genes. The genes with subscript F determine the probability that the individual cooperates in the first round of the repeated interaction (these genes can take any continuous value between 0 and 1). The other four genes (subscripted 1–4) determine whether the individual defects (0) or cooperates (1), depending on the outcome of the previous interaction round (mutual cooperation (CC); cooperation while the interaction partner defected (CD); defection while the interaction partner cooperated (DC) and mutual defection (DD)). These genes can only take values 0 or 1

Back to article page