Fig. 4 | Nature Communications

Fig. 4

From: Contraction of basal filopodia controls periodic feather branching via Notch and FGF signaling

Fig. 4

Topological arrangement of E-Cadherin-mediated cell adhesion is required for feather branching. a, b Neither pre-patterned cell proliferation nor apoptosis play a role in feather branching morphogenesis as shown by TEM analysis and PCNA staining. c, d Differential distribution of β-Catenin and E-Cadherin in feather branching. mp, marginal plate; bp, barb plate. e, f Higher magnification views of regions in d showing E-Cadherin was diffusely distributed in pre-branch feather epithelium, but as puncta in branched barbs (e). Arrow heads indicate unstable adherens junctions (AJ) in the filopodia, as compare to AJ clusters in branched barbs (f). Dashed green lines indicate the basal lamina. Representative images from five repeated experiments are shown. N, nucleus; nm, nuclear membrane. g, h Overexpression or knockdown of E-Cadherin disrupted feather branching. Histology and gross feather morphology are shown. The numbers indicate the occasions of feathers with the phenotype. Ra, rachis; eRa, ectopic rachis; eBr, ectopic branch. Bar = 2 μm in a, 20 μm in b-d (shown in c), 5 μm in e, 0.3 μm in f, 100 μm in g, 2 mm in h