Fig. 1 | Nature Communications

Fig. 1

From: The assassin bug Pristhesancus plagipennis produces two distinct venoms in separate gland lumens

Fig. 1

Assassin bug venom apparatus. ad Gland reconstructions from MRI. a Sagittal view and b dorsal view, showing position of glands in relation to the surface of the insect (green). VP, venom pump (pink); AMG, anterior main gland (dark blue); PMG, posterior main gland (red); AG, accessory gland (light blue); G, gut (yellow). c Dorsal view of main gland. VD, venom ducts connecting the hilus (H, green) to VP (pink). d Dorsal view of AG and accessory gland ducts (AGDs). eg 2D MRI slices with compartments in upper panels coloured dark blue (AMG), red (PMG) and green (hilus). Insets show location of each slice. e Parasagittal slice showing separate AMG and PMG lumens. f Dorsal plane slice showing inner (HI) and outer (HO) chambers of hilus. g Parasagittal slice (more medial than that in e), showing hilus connecting AMG and PMG. h MRI reconstruction of hilus showing connectivity to AMG, PMG, VD and AGD. i Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images of the hilus and surrounding structures. Left, nuclear stain showing arrangement of hilus, AMG, PMG, VD and AGD. Right, nuclear stain (grey) with actin stain (red) superimposed. Concentrated actin in muscle fibres (M) reveals a sphincter valve (S) at the junction of AMG and HI. j CLSM and differential interference contrast (DIC) images of hilus region. Left, DIC image. Right, antibody against acetylated tubulin (green) highlights nerves (N) and neuromuscular junctions (black arrows) as well as fibrous-appearing staining near the start of VD (white arrows) and gland cells. Red: actin staining of muscle fibres. Blue: nuclear stain. Insets: enlargements of neuromuscular junctions marked by black arrows. k Schematic of hilus with arrows indicating putative direction of flow of gland contents. Red bands represent muscle fibres (M). lm µCT scans showing arrangement of VP and VD in relation to gut (yellow). l Sagittal view of the head. VC, venom channel; FC, food channel; P, proboscis; A, antenna. m Oblique posterolateral view showing strong concavity on the posterior surface of the VP (left) connected to muscle bundle (MB, orange)

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