Table 4 Emission factors used for this studya

From: Cleaner fuels for ships provide public health benefits with climate tradeoffs

Emission Emission factor (gkW−1h), Normal (80%) load Emission factor (g  kW −1  h), low (25%) load
NO x b   
 Tier 1 engine 17 (SSD), 12.9 (MSD)b, 9.8 (HSD) 17 (SSD), 12.9 (MSD)b, 9.8 (HSD)
 Tier 2 14.4 (SSD), 10.5 (MSD), 7.7 (HSD) 14.4 (SSD), 10.5 (MSD), 7.7 (HSD)
 Tier 3 3.4 (SSD), 2.6 (MSD), 2 (HSD) 3.4 (SSD), 2.6 (MSD), 2 (HSD)
SO x c   
 0.1% sulphur (S) 0.48 (MDO/MGO: SFOC 250 g kW−1 h) 0.54 (MDO/MGO SFOC 282 g kW−1 h)
 0.5% S 2.40 (MDO/MGO: SFOC 250 g kW−1 h) 2.7 (MDO/MGO SFOC 282 g kW−1 h)
 2.7% S 8.35 (HFO: SFOC 165 g kW−1 h) 9.42 (HFO: SFOC 186 g kW−1 h)
CO 0.54 2.18
PM   
 0.1% S 0.38 0.43
 0.5% S 0.50 0.57
 2.7% S 1.19 1.35
CO2d   
 HFO 515 (SFOC 165 g kW−1 h) 580 (SFOC 186 g kW−1 h)
 MDO/MGO 803 (SFOC 250 g kW−1 h) 905 (SFOC 282 g kW−1 h)