Table 3 Summary of change in radiative forcing due to aerosol effects in BAU and 2020 Action scenarios

From: Cleaner fuels for ships provide public health benefits with climate tradeoffs

Radiative forcing (mW m−2) Direct effect Indirect effect Net aerosol forcinga
Scenario    
 BAU −6.7 −86 −93
 2020 action −2.8 −19 −22
Net change 3.9 67 71
  Percent change in radiative forcing (positive percentage = increased warming)
Shipping 75% 81% 81%
Transportb 2.1% 36% 38%
All human activityc 0.2% 3.6% 3.8%