Fig. 5 | Nature Communications

Fig. 5

From: Thermal influences on spontaneous rock dome exfoliation

Fig. 5

Uplift signals and temperature response of uppermost rock sheet prior to the 7 June 2016 exfoliation event. a Rising air temperatures results in amplified rock temperatures, with slight (1–2 h) delays in temperature change and consequent increases in rock uplift forces and sheet deformation. When maximum temperatures level out (early June), uplift forces and deformation continue to increase until energetic fracture (dashed line). b Fracture was accompanied by a 1 mm instantaneous settlement of the uppermost sheet and force drop of 5 kN. Instrumentation subsequently continues to measure stresses from other parts of the dome. A possible precursor uplift force drop (indicative of an overall stress drop) was captured in the 10-min prior to energetic fracture (inset box). Instrument error (2σ = 0.8 kN) as determined from RBC is far below the uplift force magnitudes reached during this time. RB# rockbolt uplift force, RBC rockbolt uplift force control, EX1 extensometer deformation, AT air temperature, RT rock temperature (depth indicated); instrument locations as shown in Fig. 1

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