Fig. 1 | Nature Communications

Fig. 1

From: Thermal influences on spontaneous rock dome exfoliation

Fig. 1

Twain Harte Dome California and exfoliation events. a During the summer of 2014, spontaneous exfoliation caused 30-cm-thick exfoliation sheets to fracture and tent upwards. b Close-range video captured the explosive nature of one instance of exfoliation (full video available in Supplementary Movie 1). Fragments of rupturing rock are visible in the center of the image and rock dust emanates from the fracture boundary. c Overall dome is 100 m by 350 m with maximum vertical relief of 75 m to the west. Summit area (shown here) is symmetrical with 50 m radius and increases in curvature from 0.007 m−1 at the summit to 0.027 m−1 to the northwest. White streaking on rock results from snowmelt runoff collected at the base of a chain-link fence. Deformation (EX1, CM#, CMC), uplift force (RB#, RBC), air and rock temperature (AT, RT), relative humidity (RH), and acoustic emission (AE, 1–6) instruments monitored ongoing fracture. Arrows indicate view direction for a and b; red outline shows exfoliation area captured in b. Inset map shows location of study area in northern California, USA. d Timeline of deformation and acoustic monitoring instrumentation installation, colored as shown by symbols in c. Black dashed vertical lines are fracturing events. Image in c is © Robert J. Perry, 2015 and used with permission

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