Fig. 3 | Nature Communications

Fig. 3

From: Seabird colonies as important global drivers in the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles

Fig. 3

The ten seabird species excreting the most N and P on a global scale relative to population size. The relevance of seabirds species in terms of N and P fluxes from marine to continental environments (breeding colonies) depends on a number of factors, such as population size, corporal weight, length of the breeding season, or type of feeding and, hence, their contribution is very uneven. Penguins are the main contributors, fundamentally because of their high body mass (height: 70–130 cm; weight: 5–40 kg) and the long period of time they remained in the colony (more than one year), whereas the contribution of smaller species such as the Common Gillemot, Northern Fulmar, Short-tailed Shearwater, or Thick-billed Murre is a consequence of their large population sizes

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