Fig. 2 | Nature Communications

Fig. 2

From: Metas-Chip precisely identifies presence of micrometastasis in live biopsy samples by label free approach

Fig. 2

Interaction between sensing traps and malignant cell lines. a Optical image from two MDA-MB 468 (human breast metastatic carcinoma) clusters captured by the sensing traps of Metas-Chip. b Characterization of the Metas-Chip using MDA-MB 468 cell line spiked in whole solution. c Time-lapse optical images, which shows high correlation with schematic (d) explaining the dynamic balance responsible for the capture of metastatic cells and sharp reduction in the response occurs when the single vascular cell being detached from the sensing electrode by metastatic cells. Forces acting on the HUVEC traps just have been initiated from metastatic attraction of cancer cells as, no drag forces, no fluid flow and no reaction forces applied from the system. Individual cells are <10 μm wide, and the sensing electrodes covered by single HUVECs are >15 μm wide. Whole metastatic interaction detected by the system has been occurred in less than 3.5 h. e Confocal images from invasion of MDAMB468 cell into single-HUVEC trap. Directional assembly of the actin microfilaments and formation of invadopodia entered into the membrane of vascular cell are the results of receiving chemokines S100A8 and S100A9 chemical signals from the HUVEC by chemo-sensing part of the metastatic cells located in the external of filopodia and reinforced by MMP2 family. Various images taken from the cells in two different heights (Z = 0.1 and Z = 0.5) better presented the entrance of metastatic cell’s invadopodia into the HUVEC trap. f FE-SEM image of a vascular cell invaded by a metastatic breast cell also presented the direct interaction of caner cells' invadopodias with the HUVEC’s membrane. Geimsa stain image from the interaction between MDA-MB468 cells and HUVECs presented: g a non-invaded trap; h start of invasion; i invasion and start of retracting perturbation induced into HUVECs depend on the start time of each interaction. The scale bars are 25 µm in length

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