Figure 4: Nature Communications

Fig. 4

From: Piezo-generated charge mapping revealed through direct piezoelectric force microscopy

Fig. 4

Quantitative measurements and spectroscopy experiments. a DPFM-Si and b DPFM-So images of a zoomed region of the PPLN sample recorded in order to fully integrate the charge generated, scale bar 1 μm. The mean profile average from the images was obtained in order to reduce noise. The resulting profiles are plotted in c and d, which are directly integrated to estimate the generated charge. e current-vs-force spectroscopy sweep performed in the Up domain configuration, where different force sweep rates where applied. The current generated increases with the increasing force rate. Its sign is the opposite for approach-when force increases- and retract-when force decreases. f current-vs-force spectroscopy sweep for an Up domain (top) and a Down domain (bottom). For an Up domain increasing the force will generate a positive current while the opposite occurs for a Down domain